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15 Layman’s Facts About Volcanos Postcards from Hawaii

15 Layman's Facts About Volcanos Postcards from Hawaii

15 Layman’s Facts About Volcanos Postcards from Hawaii

1.   What Exactly is a Volcano?    A volcano is an opening in the Earth’s crust, looks like the top of a mountain, that allows molten rock, gases, and debris to escape to the surface.  Pressures build in the earth core and the earth lets off pressure by these natural relief valves. Alaska, Hawaii, California, and Oregon have the most active volcanoes, but other states and territories have active volcanoes, too. A volcanic eruption may involve lava, gases, and volcanic ash,   and other debris that can flow up to 100 mph, destroying everything in their path. Volcanic ash can travel 100s of miles in the winds of the sky and cause severe health problems.

2. Are there Active Volcano’s now? In searching, we found this comprehensive site.  Here is a list of our Current active volcanos this list  them by continents

15 Layman's Facts About Volcanos Postcards from Hawaii
Volcano Erupting Hawaii

3.  How Dangerous are Volcanoes?   The Volcano is a relief vent in the earth crust.   Volcanic Eruption Is a venting of Molten Rock, gases and ashes into the atmosphere.  Violent explosions and molten rivers are very dangerous in areas that are in close proximity to the eruptions.  But then you knew that. Some of the most deadly volcanoes include Krakatoa, which erupted in 1883, releasing a tsunami that killed 36,000 people. When Vesuvius exploded in AD 79, it buried the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, killing 16,000 people.

4.  How Many Volcanos are there?   here are about 1500 volcanoes on land that are known to have have been active,

5.  What are the Largest Eruptions in Recent History?   US News article Here.

  • Tambora, Indonesia (1815) The largest recorded volcanic eruption in history, Tambora caused enough starvation and disease to kill approximately 80,000 people. …

  • Krakatau, Indonesia (1883) …

  • Pelée, Martinique (1902) …

  • Ruiz, Colombia (1985) …

  • Unzen, Japan (1792)

6.    What are the Active Volcanos in Hawaii

  • Loihi.  means “long one”, a reference to its elongate shape. For a 3-d image, check out the Hawaii Undersea Geological Observatory (HUGO) home. Right now, the summit of Lo’ihi is about 970 meters below sea level. It is growing on the lower flanks of its two neighbors, Kilauea, and Mauna Loa, with its base at a depth of about 4000 meters below sea level, so you can say that Lo’ihi itself is about 3000 m high. We don’t really know when it will reach the surface or even if it will. There is an underwater volcano off the NW coast of the big island of Hawai’i named Mahukona, and there is a debate about whether it ever grew above sea level, or died out prior to doing so. The most often-heard time required for Lo’ihi to reach sea level is about 10,000 years, but that is really only a guess. It might be 30,000 years for all we know. It is far enough away from the coastline of Hawai’i that I imagine that at first, it will be a separate island when it breaks the surface. As it grows (and especially if Kilauea and Mauna Loa are still erupting) it will soon be joined to the island.

  • Kilauea.  is considered one of the worlds most frequently active volcanoes. If you just look at the number of Kilauea eruptions recorded since Europeans arrived, there have been 62 eruptions in 245 years, which comes out to 1 eruption every 3.95 years. However, this completely ignores the fact that some of the eruptions lasted a long time. For example, the current eruption started in January of 1983 and has been continuous ever since! Likewise, there was an active lava lake in the summit caldera from at least 1823 until 1924, while at the same time eruptions would take place elsewhere on the flanks of the volcano.

  • 15 Layman's Facts About Volcanos Postcards from Hawaii
    Kilauea Erupting
  • Mauna Loa.  is an active volcano and is due for an eruption. Mauna Loa has erupted 15 times since 1900. These eruptions have lasted from a few hours to 145 days. Since 1950 Mauna Loa has erupted only twice, in 1975 and 1984. The 1975 eruption lasted 1 day. The 1984 eruption lasted 3 weeks. Nearly all the eruptions begin at the summit. About half of these migrate down into a rift zone.

  • Hualalai.  is an active volcano. The resort town of Kailua is on the southwest flank of the volcano. Hualalai last erupted in 1801 and sent lava from a vent on its northeast rift down to the ocean. Swarms of earthquakes in 1929 were probably the result of magma movement within the volcano but there was not an eruption. Hualalai is monitored by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. In the last 24 years, there have been no swarms of microearthquakes nor any harmonic tremor. Since the early 1980s, the geologists have been surveying the volcano. Hualalai is not expanding at the present time nor has expanded since the geologists began making their measurements. If anything changes I’m sure we’ll hear about it

  • Haleakala.  began growing on the ocean floor roughly 1-2 million years ago. It erupted most recently in 1790 at La Perouse    7.    Can you go down into an active Volcano?   Check out this Volcano Tour in Iceland.

Generally, an active volcano can have extreme temperatures which prevent normal exploration is restricted.

8.  What is a Volcano Plume?    Unlike the ash produced by burning wood and other organic materials, volcanic ash can be dangerous. Its particles are very hard and usually have jagged edges. As a result, it can cause eye, nose, and lung irritation, as well as breathing problems. While in the air, ash can cause problems for jet engines, forcing airlines to cancel flights through the affected area. An ashfall that leaves a thick layer of ash may cause roofs to collapse, clog gutters, and interfere with air conditioning units. Animals in an area coated by volcanic ash may have difficulty finding food, as the plants in the region may be covered in ash. Ash can also contaminate water supplies.

15 Layman's Facts About Volcanos Postcards from Hawaii
Mt Saint Helens

9.  Are Volcanic Gases Poisonous?    Some volcanic gases can be fatal. In historic time, deaths have been caused by sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonic acid and hydrogen sulfide.  In 1794, an eruption at Vesuvius killed about 400 people. Several people died from carbon dioxide. In 1872, an unknown number of fatalities were caused by carbon dioxide. Seven people died of gas inhalation in 1873.

10.    Can Vegetation grow in volcanic ash? 

Living animals in the path of an eruption are destroyed over a wide area, during an eruption. The good thing is that volcanic soil is very rich, so once everything cools off, plants can make a big comeback!  Volcanic ash can be added to gardens also for better growth.

Livestock and other mammals have been killed by lava flows, atmospheric effects, gases, and tsunami. They can also die from famine, forest fires, and earthquakes caused by or related to eruptions.

Mount St. Helens provides an example. The Washington Department of Game estimated that 11,000 hares, 6,000 deer, 5,200 elk, 1,400 coyotes, 300 bobcats, 200 black bears, and 15 mountain lions died from the pyroclastic flows of the 1980 eruption

11.  Volcanos can be active, or dormant, or extinct.   Somewhere, around the world, there are likely about 20 active volcanoes erupting as you’re reading this. Some are experiencing new activity, others are ongoing. Between 50-70 volcanoes erupted last year, and 160 were active in the last decade. Geologists estimate that 1,300 erupted in the last 10,000 years.

12.  What is the Tallest Volcano?   The Tallest and Biggest Volcanoes on Earth are side by side: The tallest volcano on Earth is Hawaii’s Mauna Kea, with an elevation of 4,207 meters. It’s only a little bigger than the largest volcano on Earth, Mauna Loa with an elevation of only 4,169 meters. Both are shield volcanoes that rise up from the bottom of the ocean. If you could measure Mauna Kea from the base of the ocean to its peak, you’d get a true height of 10,203 meters (and that’s bigger than Mount Everest).

15 Layman's Facts About Volcanos Postcards from Hawaii
Volcano Crater

13.  What is a Submarine volcano?  Submarine volcanoes are underwater vents or fissures in the Earth’s surface from which magma can erupt. A large number of submarine volcanoes are located near areas of tectonic plate movement, known as mid-ocean ridges. The volcanoes at mid-ocean ridges alone are estimated to account for 75% of the magma output on Earth.  Although most submarine volcanoes are located in the depths of seas and oceans, some also exist in shallow water, and these can discharge material into the atmosphere during an eruption. The total number of submarine volcanoes is estimated to be over 1 million, of which some 75,000 rises more than 1 km above the seabed

14.   What is the Difference between Cold and Hot Volcanos?  Hot Volxanos spew molten magma, gases, ash,  whereas Cold Volcanos   erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock

15.   Are Volcanoes on other Planets in Our solar system?   Yes Here is a List of 10 of the most well known.

 

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