London has amazing the amount of history that we can understand and look at and when we’re studying the city of London I wanted to go back and take a quick look at the history of the town itself that sprang up along the River Thames and it started out close to 2000 years ago as a marshland in today we see it as it has changed into the thriving city of London that we see today originally it was owned by the Brits and during the days of the Roman Empire, they place their eyes as a prize for them to have England.
the country of Britannia became a country with a reputation of fear across Europe. It was inhabited by Fierce warrior tribes and they were ready at all cost to defend their land. It was a place of superstition and a place of the unknown as to the rest of Europe since it was separated by water. During that time the Roman empire was very strong in Europe in Rome, then England was seen as something to be captured by Julius Caesar.
He visited England in 55 BC, at first it was a fact-finding trip to find out, what was there and whether they wanted to try to conquer Terrotory. Then the next year in 56 BC the large Roman soldier army, approximately 20,000 to make war on the Brits at that time they tried to conquer it but the Brits fault them off and they had to turn into feet then again in 4380 the Romans returned with twice the amount of men 40, 000 sold at that time they even brought and they conquered. Through Fierce battles and Pillage.
After they had conquered the land, they came about the task of trying to manage and keep control of the warfaring nation of barbarians that they had caught. so they took their fleet of ships and they sold them up the Thames River, and then they found a location that, we would know today is London and they felt that was a good spot and they set up a community where they actually built the first London Bridge, that was there made out of wood and it also had gate so they could open up and closed so the ships could go back and pass.
At the time they built this village it brought with it, the prosperity. the bridge that was built was made of wood and it at the time thousands of trees felled to make the construction project. London became as history would call it as Londonium. At that time had a population at that time of approximately 10,000 people.
Crossrail has been of the largest project that London has ever seen. The Crossrail project building an underground railroad railway underneath the city across the capital. In this building process, they have uncovered thousands of years of archaeological history, from the town of London. from the time it was a Marsh up until they completely prosperous technological thriving city that it is today. some of that history has been uncovered in the ruins beneath the city as they continue to discover more and more items as not only the project goes forward but as archaeologists follow them uncovering more and more of the history and ancient events that took place to bring London to the place that it is today.
Julius Ceasar – Londonium
When the Romans had conquered. They set up from this time the town that we would know called is Londonium, it had a population of about 10000 people but they had brought in slaves and workers, soldiers from all over the world to build this community. Also, you have the native people that also moved in to take advantage of the things that were taking place the prosperity and the economy that Rome brought gave Londinium a great advantage and it became a thriving Commerce center in the trade because of its location on the Thames River.
Warrior Queen Buddha
Rome kept trying to conquer in a conquered different land, and they had at the time they were in Londinium, they had attacked another King and ransacked their city. they conquered them and killed the King, and his wife she was called queen Buddha, she came back in retaliation. they had killed her husband and they had raped her daughters and she put together an army of her late husband. they came back and attack the Roman Army, she brought with her had 100,000 soldiers with her, and they attack Londinium and they defeated the Roman army in the city. They then Burnt it completely to the ground, completely destroyed everything that had been built
After Queen BudDas revenge had taken place and she literally burned Londinium
into the ground, it only took close to 2 years for it to begin to be reborn again. Romans again pouring more money and people into it and rebuild it. The Romans Structure Building that was made out of stone, very solid structures. The town of Londonium again grew back to a population of around 7,000. Through archaeology has found great Roman houses that have been built they had elaborate heating systems built underneath floors of their houses. great decks out overlooking the Thames River.
Very elaborate dwellings. As time went on in the Roman Empire continue to grow by the year 208 there were approximately 30,000 living in Londinium, people from all over Europe came and made this a melting pot of nationality. Archaeologists have found many countries that were present. Through the identifying of Skeletons, people came from all over Europe to live there during this time. Much of this history is been found from the Conrail project that is taking place, it had literally become a melting pot for the whole world. What began as a military outpost was now a thriving prosperous city. Roman Wall
Because of the warring characteristics of the people surrounding Londonium, The Romans built London’s first city wall. It was approximately 18 feet high it was 9 feet wide. They capped it with red limestone made it have the appearance of glowing red from miles and miles around. it actually gave the city it’s defined shape for a long time. Much of this stone was quarried from the locality called Kent, not only was it a quarry but they mined it with people and with prisoners, in Roman times prisoners may have received a death sentence to work until they died in the quarries in Kent. They would have to ferry by boat all the stones that were used in the building of that it is been estimated it probably took 2000 ferry trips, to be able to get the stones to the location where they were built cleared in 282 AD
Ghost Town – with fall of the Roman Empire
By the end of the fifth century, the Roman Empire had begun to shrink. Many of the outlying Territories were withdrawn from. Londonium am was one of those areas. the Roman Empire started to go back so they left Londinium when the Romans went back. without protection, many of the population that lived in Londinium followed them back. Londonium was completely deserted and became a ghost town with no one living there at all even though it had a prime location on the Thames River. it would not stay vacant for long.
Saxons – Londonwich
In the seventh century, approximately 670 AD the Saxon Raiders from the North begin sweeping through England, and as they were conquering, as they went through and they found the great location that the Romans had found along the Thames River. Even Though at this time it was vacant, it did not take them long to start to establish their own city in that prime location. the new city was called Londonwich and they said it settled it had a population have about 7000 people. Almost all the buildings were made out of wood not stone like the Romans had done, and again because of its location trade and Commerce blossom in Londonwich began growing and thriving is it all had always done before in the past.
Next came the Vikings from the North. They invaded and what pursued was 100 years of blood and war – Londonium was attacked in 850 AD by the Vikings conquering and pillaging the country in 851 AD 350 Viking warships sailed up the Thames River an attack Londonwich play conquered it and took up residence
He was an English King of Great renown English history, is King Alfred. He rose up in 886 AD expelled the Vikings. When King Alfred raised his army he expelled the Vikings, he then moved the city back inside the old city walls that the Romans had built for protection of the city now at that time add another name which is called London Burr.
In his battles against the Vikings, great battles took place and one of the greatest was the one over London’s bridge which at that battle the Vikings in their ships to the bridge they then hooked to it and they pulled all the columns down that was holding it up and they literally destroyed London Bridge it in that great battle.
Good morning because of the great location of London it does not take long when it has short moments of peace for it to begin to thrive with commerce and trade that’s what began under king Alfred, came to do it as the renamed LondonBurr, grew and prospered and great multitudes of people were drawn to it because of its prosperity
But as time went on Peace did not continue, next came the Normans out of the North in 1066 they were led by Duke Williams the bastard King, he gathered a large army and invaded London, he captured it through the war and then after he had conquered it then he began establishing a method to control and manage it. it was during this time they begin building Castles all over England, great castles that we see today were built by the Normans during that time. he also built a great Castle for himself. Duke Williams brought in stone Mason from Normandy to do all the construction it took 20 years for him to build his own castle, he died before it was completed. they were doing because they wanted to make it so impressive that the native people would understand the strength and power that they had to help maintain their control.
Dynasty of Norman Kings
The Normans ruled England for approximately 200 years with this stability it did not take long for the ancient city of London to begin growing again. by the time of 1250 AD, the population again had risen to 80,000 people and it became the capital of England once again.
It was During this time that we saw the continued separation of the 2 cities – Westminster and then London and that they both continued to grow, Westminster house the King or the monarchy and in the area of London house all the finances markets and Commerce that took place, and they continue to grow during this time Westminster Abbey with the Kings authority, and he wanted to make it the most magnificent church in the world it was King Henry the third that decided to build it cost 2 years of annual revenue for the kingdom. to build this magnificent church King Henry had not only did it for his piety sake, but he had a great thirst for power and wealth now it is known as one of the most magnificent structures of the world
A Disaster of the Black Plague
In 1348 a great disaster-hit London it was the black plague. it was a deadly disease carried by rodents he killed tens of thousands of people of London, in 18 months it killed half of the cities population. There were Many buried in great mass graves in pits, discovered with the Crossrail Excavation. it continues taking place in London now they have run into many of the mass graves they were made during that time in the city of London. The bubonic plague was so great that at that time it killed one-third of the world’s population. now contrary to that, after the black plague living conditions improve, prosperity improved, food conditions improved, those who survived to seem to be stronger and also because of the lesser population a lot of things being able to get improve, so 30 years after the disaster of the great plague, the black plague, there was a new age of prosperity hitting London they described it as their streets being paved with gold business was booming.
It was at this time that we see the surface of a man by the name of, Dick or Richard Whittingly, he was the younger son of a Knight, in he was trained as an apprentice in cloth selling. He did it so well, that was how he made most of his money is a great fortune in the selling of clothes. From that start, he created a money lending business. which he loaned money to Kings and businesses and future king’s. in the years to come, he did such a great job for the city of London that it expanded. it that they made him mayor for 4 terms in London, he continued to loan lenders money to the Kings. Some of his loans were secured by the crown jewels. he bailed out Kings, he paid for great city projects in 1411 AD he completed a library, he also completed clean drinking water for the people, built a hospital. He also made one of the first public toilets. It would seat 128 people on the Thames River and twice a day when the tide would come up it would wash away the poop from the great toilet.
William Wallace sentenced to Death
at this time that we hear of history talking about William Wallace. He was put to death in Westminster. as we watch him Braveheart movie.
It was during these years that the 2 great cities were vying for power Westminster, and also London They were joined by a street called fleet street and because of the great Commerce and power that was going between the 2 centers, it became one of the greatest streets of the world. Eventually, both those centers of power would become one it was during the reign of Henry the eighth that he greatly sought piety and also he sought great wealth during his reign, His quest for money would change the history of London. in 1529 he wanted to marry his mistress and the church disapproved so he took the power from the church and proclaimed himself head of the Church.
He Built had a great palace. King Henry the eighth confiscated the pope he replaced the castle. He decided to make it the greatest palace in the world. The people that disagreed with him, he simply had hanged or killed. in any property he needed for its construction he simply would take in 1698 AD was part of the palace was gutted by fire but the time is one of the greatest palaces of the world, but not all.
Queen Elizabeth – Virgin Queen
The next great time of prosperity in London was during the time of Queen Elizabeth, she was called the Virgin queen. near old England and power at that time in 1581 AD is known as the time, when the ship came back called the “Golden hind” Francis Drake had actually circled the globe for the first time in history. this began the great expansion of the British Empire on historic proportions. He brought back the immense wealth that he had captured. today we would call him a pirate, He Robbed places and he brought wealth from the Americans. He also robbed Spanish warships plundered them, London then became a world Hub, it became famous for its international immigrant magnet from all over the world.
London Had reached around 350,000 in population, area of approximately 5 miles from East to West. the London fire started in the backyard of the Baker shop on a hot summer night. this Sunday night in September of 1666 starting in the early hours of the morning the fire blazed on for 5 days of flame, almost all of London was affected by 13,000 houses were destroyed 87 churches 80% of the city was in Ashes the disaster had leftover 100, 000 Londoners homeless. After the fire, King Charles the second asked for ideas how they could rebuild London, many suggestions game but the suggestions from a man by the name of Wren was the most popular he suggested that day rebuild like Rome or Paris
St Pauls Cathedral
All of his suggestions were rejected but the one suggestion, he had how to rebuild Saint pauls he made 3 designs, and every one of them was rejected, one after another finally he made the fourth design. the King and the popes accepted that one and it took approximately 35 years to build Saint pauls cathedral. After the fire, London had been just about completely destroyed, but it didn’t take long to get back up and running again great location on the Thames River but as it rebuilt. Two Groups took form, the very rich and the very poor.
During the rebuild many of the rich rebuilt magnificent Homes. The poor people did not have the money so that they lived in slums sometimes as many as 120 people living in a single dwelling. by the mid-1700 mother had become so popular because of the River set it was the shopping center of the luxury items rum sugar spices good in the city the Thames River had become so crammed with ships, did it was said you could walk across the river without touching the water. there were approximately 37,000 workers that were working around that area of docs in 1799.
The West India company came up with a plan to build a new dock system. they built a new dock so the ships could go in, and be offloaded and then leave out another exit. Before that everything had to be offloaded by small ships in taking to the shores of the now the process had been automated in London even thrived more
Queen Victoria 1838
In 1838 an 18-year-old Princess has crowned Queen Victoria. That time in England was moving into the industrial age. Factories sprang up, it was a great time of prosperity. but with that also came a great time of pollution – industrial pollution – fires – smog the River being intensely full of sewage.
Railways – 1836
In 1836 another great change hit London that changed her face forever. it was the time of the railway. A period of intensive railroads was being built throughout London to increase the amount of traffic that could go in and out of the capital city. at that time there were 19 different companies that were competing to build rail stations. at that time tunnels became popular people could get to work in the center of the city. it is said that every day 20,000 travelers would commute to London to work at that time the population in run London grew to be 3,000,000 at the same time of that great growth the people, the pollution grew just as fast the Thames River being completely polluted
In 1850 there was a great outbreak of Cholera having sprung up all over the city, 500 cases of Cholera was named in just one community alone. there was a doctor – John Snow – at that time who believes the cholera was caused by the contamination of water. At that time the thought was it was being caused by the great amounts of smog. He created a map of Fatalities and you could see its progress from the contaminated water supply. To run a test he proposed to the city officials that they removed the handle of the local well pump. Immediately the Cholera outbreak stopped.
The Great Stink
The sewage and contamination was so great that the stink of the Thames was very bad at that time
The city officials determined to move forward with a plan to handle the increasing sewage. The Plan they put into play was a building project of 1300 miles of sewer pipe to carry the city sewage to the mouth of the Thames, to be carried it out to sea.
Old Postcards United Kingdom / UK/ England History
|Date||Events||Description||Number of Postcards||Ebay Postcards Over 4 Million PostcardsLink|
|1863||First Underground Train - London Postcards||First In London||8||Postcards|
|1912||Stainless Steel Postcards||Invented|
|1914||English WWI Postcards|
|1939||English WWII Postcards|
|1979||Margaret Thatcher Postcards||Become Prime Ministers||6||Postcards|
|1985||Bradford Fire Postcards||Stadium Fire||3||Postcards|
|1996||UEFA Euro 1996 Postcards||England Host||30||Postcards|
|1997||Tony Blair Prime Minister Postcards||35||Postcards|
|1997||Diana Dies Postcards||Princess Diana of Wales||696||Postcards|
|2003||England Wins Rugby Cup Postcards||Defeating Austrailia||36||Postcards|
|2005||Bombing Londons Subways Postcards||Public Transportation||30||Postcards|
|2012||2012 Summer Olympics Postcards||London||28||Postcards|
United Kingdom Postcard Artist
|Artist||Date||Country||Number of Postcards||Ebay Link Over 4 Million Postcards|
|Alfred Pearse Postcards||1855 - 1933||England||30||Postcards|
|Photochrom Company Postcards||1856 - 1924||England||839||Postcards|
|Jarrold & Sons. Postcards||1745-1775||England||42||Postcards|
|Rotary Photographic Co||1901||London England||1,580||Postcards|
|William Rothenstein Postcards||1872 - 1945||English||7||Postcards|
|Charles Houton Howard Postcards||1899-1978||American||42||Postcards|
|J. Salmon Postcards||1844 - 1923||England||1,818||Postcards|
|Joseph Mallord William Turner Postcards||1771 - 1851||England||1,372||Postcards|
|W.N. Sharpe Ltd. Postcards||1950 - 2011||England||839||Postcards|
|Fortunino Matania Postcards||1881 - 1963||Italian||60||Postcards|
|Christopher Clark, Postcards||Present||4,242||Postcards|
|Philip Dadd Postcards||1880 - 1916||England||11||Postcards|
|Donald MacPherson Postcards||1920 - 1986||30||Postcards|
|Paul Thiriat Postcards||1898 - 1970||113||Postcards|
|Harry Payne Postcards||1858 - 1927||England Military||648||Postcards|
|G.T. Clarkson Postcards||166||Postcards|
|Hans Bohrdt Postcards||1857 - 1945||German||15||Postcards|
|Bernard F. Gribble Postcards||1872 - 1962||England Marine||39||Postcards|
|R. Caton Woodville. Postcards||1856 - 1927||England||150||Postcards|
|John Valentine Postcards||1730 - 1791||Scotland||125||Postcards|
|Louis Wain Postcards||1860 - 1939||England||295||Postcards|
|Herbert Ward Postcards||1883 - 1919||England||1,934||Postcards|
|Louis Whirter Postcards||1873 - 1932||Scotland||15||Postcards|
|William Barnes Wollen Postcards||1857 - 1936||England||563||Postcards|
|Lawson Wood Postcards||1878 - 1957||England||150||Postcards|
|J.H. Roberts Postcards||1884 - 1961||England||7159||Postcards|
|Richard Caton Woodville, Jr|
|1856 - 1927||England||150||Postcards|
|George Wright Postcards||1860 - 1942||England||2,295||Postcards|
|john Hinde Postcards||1916 - 1977||England||948||Postcards|
|Donald McGill Postcards||1875 - 1962||England||569||Postcards|
|Cyril Kenneth Bird|
|1887 - 1965||English||4||Postcards|
|David Low Postcards||1891 - 1963||New Zealand|
|Arnold Taylor Postcards||142||Postcards|
|Laurie Taylor Postcards||147||Postcards|